“Consider the work of God: who can make straight what he has made crooked? When things are going well, enjoy yourself; but when things are going badly, consider that God made the one alongside the other, so that people would learn nothing of their futures.”Kohelet 7: 13, 14 (Complete Jewish Bible)
“This state of affairs has led to three things in particular which I see as characterizing the new problem of evil. First, we ignore evil when it doesn’t hit us in the face. Second, we are surprised by evil when it does. Third, we react in immature and dangerous ways as a result.”N.T. Wright, Evil and the Justice of God. (IVP Books, 2006), pp. 23-4.
Bishop Wright refers to the “new problem of evil”. By this, he does not mean that evil is a new problem. In the preamble to this statement he explains that the old problem has taken on a very new twist in the last two centuries. Modern/post-modern humans are continually astonished at the manifest “wickedness, roguery, and rascality” (see Embersley, quoted in the previous instalment) effervescing from individual humans who have been taught better things and intellectually know better. This undying denial of what is obvious to any objective observation is maintained despite all the empirical evidence to the contrary that has continuously bombarded the human race for millennia, including the West with its entrenched doctrines of progress and human perfectibility. Incidentally, it is always convenient to forget that this very doctrine was borrowed from, and then mutilated and eviscerated of, its spiritual origins in Christianity.
Western culture and society persist in believing in a doctrine of inevitable and ineluctable progress rooted in the idea of the inherent goodness of humanity which will one day evolve into some sort of epiphany of an evolved quasi-divinity. There is manifestly no historical or observational evidence to sustain this unshakeable faith.
A few examples, going back 3000 years and more, of the indisputable, well-documented, contrary evidence (roughly in chronological order): the Israelite massacre of the Canaanites, the Assyrian slaughters of their conquered peoples, Roman genocides of the Carthaginians and Jews and various others, the Muslim onslaught on and slaughters in (Zoroastrian) Persia and (Christian) North Africa, Genghis Khan and the Mongol terror over most of Asia, Tamerlane (Timushin), a reprise of dear old Genghis. And for sanctimonious North Americans (including our indigenous peoples): the Aztec terrors in Central America, followed by Spain’s ‘merciful’ deliverance, the Iroquois genocide of the Hurons followed by the white American genocides of many of their indigenous peoples. Then there is the generalized wretchedness (including massive body counts) of slavery throughout all history in every continent and down to this day. Oh, and we mustn’t forget the perpetual exploitation of women, and rampant racism with all its wickedness.
Oops! Can’t leave out World War 1! And how about the Turkish genocide of the Armenians (1915-6)? World War 2, anyone? The Holocaust, anyone? Stalin and Mao, anyone? The Khmer Rouge, anyone? Rwanda, anyone? ISIS (Yazidis, Assyrian and Chaldean Christians, 2013), anyone?
You get the idea. As the New Testament puts it, “All have sinned and fall [far] short of the glory of the Creator” and “There is not one righteous, not even one,” the self-proclaimed glory of humanism notwithstanding.
But apparently it is only the believers in a Creator who are guilty of blind faith and only they have ever done any mass killing. It’s the religious factor that apparently makes religious fanatics specially reprehensible—more than the ideological terrorists like Robespierre, Lenin, Stalin, Mao, Pol-Pot, Baghdadi (just-slain ISIS Caliph), and Hitler. Admittedly, if you proclaim a God of mercy and love and proceed to massacre those who oppose you, defy you, question your truth, and threaten your control, it is perhaps extra-specially despicable and abhorrent. But it is all too “human” within the general character of human behaviour. So it is not the religion that is the root cause, but the “wickedness, roguery, and rascality” that lies in darkest depths of the unchanged human heart.
In Kohelet’s words, as he speaks on our behalf from our extremely limited perspective, we dare to say, “God’s ways are crooked”, therefore He/She is not a good God. Yet, as we have noted, God made this implacable universe out of love.
Thing is, the nature of love demands a universe where evil is possible because free creatures made for love must have the freedom to choose not to love but to do evil in its stead. But to avoid blame, guilt, and responsibility we must then blame God, or deny Him/Her altogether, because we don’t want to look ourselves in the face—especially since, as we are told over and over these days, humans are not fundamentally flawed in their nature. Nevertheless, as we have just observed, in all the greatest evils inflicted on the human race throughout its history, it was other humans doing the accusing and condemning, then wielding the swords, guns, and machinery of destruction one upon another, expending incalculable energy and creative imagination to find new and better ways to pile evil upon evil and body upon body in the name of vengeance, justice, or plain old avarice, power-hunger, and blood-lust.
In the middle chapters of the Biblical book called Kohelet (Ecclesiastes to we English-speakers), Solomon-Kohelet seems to lose his way through the maze of wheels within wheels of causality and depressing socio-economic analysis, as we would now call it. In this he is very much like a modern or postmodern sociologist. He tries to take the stance of a neutral observer, striving to sort out the conflicting stories and sets of evidence from this series of what we would now call “case studies” which constitute his raw material. His questions (which I herewith paraphrase) abound: “Why do I see really good people continually being crushed and destroyed while wicked people live long, prosperous lives? Why are good, honest, upright people so hard to find anywhere, anytime? Why are wise people so hard to find anywhere, anytime? Why do we understand so little about why things happen, even when it’s so obvious such things will happen?” (Perhaps this can be stated as “Why don’t we ever learn anything from history, at least not for long?”) Finally, “Why do the authorities continually ignore and fail to act against flagrant evil and injustice?”
Solomon-Kohelet never blames the Creator for any of this, despite the temptation to do so (which the supposedly wise people of our time find impossible to resist). He offers three poignant observations (a diagnosis?): “. . . on looking over all of God’s work, I realized that it is impossible to grasp all the activity taking place under the sun. . . . the righteous and the wise, along with their deeds, are in God’s hands—a person cannot know whether these people and these deeds will be rewarded with love or with hatred; all options are open. . . . Truly the human mind is full of evil; and as long as people live, folly is in their hearts; after which they go to be with the dead.” (8:17, 9:1, 9:3)
First, no human mind or any number of human minds can possibly see or understand “all of God’s work . . . all the activity taking place under the sun”. What is the implication? That it is supreme human arrogance and hubris for humans to pit their minds and “wisdom” against the Creator. They thus set themselves up as prosecutor, judge, and jury of their own infinite Creator, and then pronounce sentence. They are in fact themselves the condemned by their own choices to defy the Creator’s intention for them and the creation He/She placed them in. Even if we have millions or billions more years (an extremely dubious likelihood), as per the evolutionary story, we will never reach the end of understanding the Cosmos that is stretched out before us. To quote the current Swedish climate-Messiah, “How dare you/we?” make such an assumption.
Second, it doesn’t matter who we are, rich or poor, powerful or a social nonentity, wise and well-educated or foolish and uneducated (and these do not necessarily coincide), “their (our) deeds are in God’s hands”. We can imagine that we are autonomous, independent agents fashioning the future and changing the world (or perhaps just our own tiny part of it) according to our own lights, but ultimately, that level of competence and real power belongs only to the Creator who both made us and all that is, and still directs all things, continually willing them to continue to exist first of all. He/She is not denying or removing our ability to choose, but whatever we choose, it will be brought within the Creator’s orb and integrated with all other things. And we simply cannot see enough, either in time or distance, to know the outcome of even ordinary decisions and actions: “whether these people and these deeds will be rewarded with love or with hatred; all options are open.” What is unchangeable in all of this is the nature of the Creator who loves His/Her creation and creatures (including us humans) and respects our power to choose, precisely because of this love.
Third, and most unpalatable and unworthy and undignified in our current spiritual, psychological, and sociological climate: “Truly the human mind is full of evil; and as long as people live, folly is in their hearts; after which they go to be with the dead.”
Of this, more next time.